We turn your underbrush and trees into mulch, then evenly spread it around across the ground to reduce erosion. The creation of a European single currency became an official objective of the European Economic Community in 1969.  By January 2007, however, talks appeared to be stalled, as President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus stated: "The Russian leadership is demanding that we join the Russian Federation—that's what is in the heads of the Russian leadership. A meeting between President Lukashenko of Belarus, President Vladimir Putin of Russia and Union State Secretary Pavel Borodin was held in Minsk 13–14 December 2007.  European leaders Alcide De Gasperi from Italy, Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman from France, and Paul-Henri Spaak from Belgium understood that coal and steel were the two industries essential for waging war, and believed that by tying their national industries together, future war between their nations became much less likely. , Nevertheless, the nature of the political entity remained vague. A European Union trade mark is valid in all European Union Member States. 22–26); Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (OJ L 303, 2 December 2000, pp. [w] When the time limit for implementing directives passes, they may, under certain conditions, have direct effect in national law against member states.  Scholar Thomas Risse wrote in 2009, "there is a consensus in the literature on Eastern Europe that the EU membership perspective had a huge anchoring effects for the new democracies.  Over the past 50 years, an increasingly dense network of legislation has been created, extending to all areas of environmental protection, including air pollution, water quality, waste management, nature conservation, and the control of chemicals, industrial hazards, and biotechnology. During the centuries that followed the fall of Rome in 476, several European states viewed themselves as translatio imperii ("transfer of rule") of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire (481–843) and the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West. , The European Union has contributed to peace in Europe, in particular by pacifying border disputes, and to the spread of democracy, especially by encouraging democratic reforms in aspiring Eastern European member states after the collapse of the USSR.   The basis of the union was strengthened on 2 April 1997, with the signing of the "Treaty on the Union between Belarus and Russia" at which time its name was changed to the Union of Belarus and Russia. , The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the long lasting policies of the European Community. [o] The EU's highest peak is Mont Blanc in the Graian Alps, 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft) above sea level.  In 2016, unemployment in the EU stood at 8.9% while inflation was at 2.2%, and the current account balance at −0.9% of GDP. , Due to the high number of official languages, most of the institutions use only a handful of working languages. It serves to represent the various governments directly and its approval is required for any proposal to enter into law.  In 2020, the first ever European Union Strategy on LGBTIQ equality was approved under Helena Dalli mandate.. The following timeline outlines the legal inception of the European Union (EU)—the principal framework for this unification. At the same time, the union provides an external constraint that prevents soft authoritarian regimes from progressing into hard dictatorships. The cost of starting up a business varies across the European Union and there is some progress. The majority of the population lives in areas with a temperate maritime climate (North-Western Europe and Central Europe), a Mediterranean climate (Southern Europe), or a warm summer continental or hemiboreal climate (Northern Balkans and Central Europe). The four countries forming the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) are not EU members, but have partly committed to the EU's economy and regulations: Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, which are a part of the single market through the European Economic Area, and Switzerland, which has similar ties through bilateral treaties. , In 2012, the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for having "contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe. Social security main legislation is found in the Equal Treatment in Occupational Social Security Directive 86/378, the Equal Treatment in Social Security Directive 79/7/EEC, the Social Security Regulation 1408/71/EC and 883/2004/EC and the Directive 2005/36/EC. Notwithstanding its different configurations, it is considered to be one single body. It is at the centre of the European System of Central Banks, which comprehends all EU national central banks and is controlled by its General Council, consisting of the President of the ECB, who is appointed by the European Council, the Vice-President of the ECB, and the governors of the national central banks of all 27 EU member states. The judicial branch of the EU—formally called the Court of Justice of the European Union—consists of two courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court. In 1999 the currency union started, first as an accounting currency with eleven member states joining. Brings together ministers of member states governments' departments.  The EEAS will serve as a foreign ministry and diplomatic corps for the European Union. Die Union pour la Nouvelle République (UNR) war eine französische Partei in der Zeit von 1958 bis 1967.In ihr und ihren Nachfolgeparteien Union des Démocrates pour la V e République (UD-V e; 1967–1968) und Union des démocrates pour la République (UDR; 1968–1976) organisierte sich der politische Gaullismus der Fünften Französischen Republik von ihrer Gründung bis 1976. Kein Wunder, schließlich leben wir alle darin. Other key global agreements are the Paris Agreement and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (United Nations, 2015). , Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement.  The Western European Union, a military alliance with a mutual defence clause, was disbanded in 2010 as its role had been transferred to the EU. There is a strong dependence on Russian energy that the EU has been attempting to reduce.  Emily O'Reilly is the current ombudsman since 2013. , The Treaty on the Creation of a Union State of Russia and Belarus was signed on 8 December 1999. EU-Armenia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, EU and Kyrgyz Republic Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, monetary policy for the Member States whose currency is the, the conservation of marine biological resources under the, social policy, for the aspects defined in this Treaty, economic, social and territorial cohesion, common safety concerns in public health matters, for the aspects defined in this Treaty, development cooperation, humanitarian aid, the coordination of economic, employment and social policies, the protection and improvement of human health, 2020: Spanish health workers on the front line against, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 04:20. UNION LOS ANGELES Union Core Welders Jacket $180.  Several further agreements were signed on 25 December 1998, with the intention of providing greater political, economic and social integration. , In the 2010 budget of €141.5 billion, the largest single expenditure item is "cohesion & competitiveness" with around 45% of the total budget. However, the most visible and arguably important official in the Union has been the State Secretary, who runs the Union State's day-to-day operations. The eurozone (constituted by the EU member states which have adopted the euro) has since grown to 19 countries. The landscape, climate, and economy of the EU are influenced by its coastline, which is 65,993 kilometres (41,006 mi) long. The budget may still be approved if Hungary and Poland withdraw their vetos after further negotiations in the Council and the European Council. While both can legislate, member states can only legislate to the extent to which the EU has not. The anthem of the Union is an instrumental version of the prelude to the Ode to Joy, the 4th movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's ninth symphony. However, after the resignation of Yeltsin, Vladimir Putin was elected in 2000 to succeed him as president of Russia, thus forcing Lukashenko to cancel his plans and keep balance between the independence of Belarus and Putin's increasing pressure for further integration among the two countries into the Union State.  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo are officially recognised as potential candidates, with Bosnia and Herzegovina having submitted a membership application. Post-Brexit EU Defence Policy: Is Germany Leading towards a European Army? Shortly after its inauguration, both member states seemed to have lost their enthusiasm for the Union, with first Russia, and then Belarus, restoring customs controls along their common border in 2001, effectively suspending the customs union until it was restored in 2010. Pan-European political thought truly emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire (1804–1815). , Under the principle of supremacy, national courts are required to enforce the treaties that their member states have ratified, and thus the laws enacted under them, even if doing so requires them to ignore conflicting national law, and (within limits) even constitutional provisions. "Toward a Union State of Russia and Belarus", p. 151, "S. Shorshorov: Draft Constitutional Act is 99% Ready", "Union State of Russia and Belarus: a military union? The European Commission working sectors are: Aeronautics, automotive, biotechnology, chemicals, construction, cosmetics, defense, electronics, firearms, food and drink, gambling, healthcare, maritime, mechanics, medical, postal, raw materials, space, textile, tourism, toys and Social economy (Societas cooperativa Europaea). , The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making, and according to the principles of conferral (which says that it should act only within the limits of the competences conferred on it by the treaties) and of subsidiarity (which says that it should act only where an objective cannot be sufficiently achieved by the member states acting alone). In other areas the EU and its member states share the competence to legislate. It consists of an, EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement. , The EU has no major competences in the field of health care and Article 35 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms that "A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities".  In 2017, approximately 825,000 people acquired citizenship of a member state of the European Union. Mai 1950 gab der französische Außenminister Robert Schuman eine Erklärung ab, die den Grundstein für die heutige Europäische Union legte. After the recent enlargement, the new states that joined since 2004 added the problem of solving accessibility to the transport agenda. Jewish population figures may be unreliable.  Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty provides the basis for a member to leave the Union. La Grande (Oregon) La Grande ist eine Kleinstadt im Union County, Oregon, USA. 16–22). Containing some 5.8% of the world population in 2020,[d] the EU had generated a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of around US$15.5 trillion in 2019, constituting approximately 18% of global nominal GDP. , Association football is by far the most popular sport in the European Union by the number of registered players. La Grande ist eine Kleinstadt im Union County, Oregon, USA.Die Stadt ist die Countyverwaltung des Union County. EU development action is based on the European Consensus on Development, which was endorsed on 20 December 2005 by EU Member States, the council, the European Parliament and the commission. In the pre-2004 EU members, the major problem in transport deals with congestion and pollution.  In a speech delivered on 19 September 1946 at the University of Zürich, Switzerland, Winston Churchill went further and advocated the emergence of a United States of Europe. More than half (56%) of EU citizens are able to engage in a conversation in a language other than their mother tongue. The EU has often been described as a sui generis political entity (without precedent or comparison).. They are legal acts which only apply to specified individuals, companies or a particular member state.  It is actively involved in the negotiation of treaty changes and defines the EU's policy agenda and strategies.  The other 26 Commissioners are subsequently appointed by the Council of the European Union in agreement with the nominated President. The number of stars is invariably twelve, the figure twelve being the symbol of perfection and entirety.  His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which then Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent, especially in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski (1799–1882) or Giuseppe Mazzini (1805–1872). Decisions offer an alternative to the two above modes of legislation.  The ECB is the central bank for the eurozone, and thus controls monetary policy in that area with an agenda to maintain price stability. , Since the formation of the Union State in 1997, Belarus and Russia have thus far failed to institute any symbols or even a flag for the Union State. Die Schaffung der Europäischen Union hatte zum Ziel, den zahlreichen blutigen Kriege zwischen den Nachbarländern, die im Zweiten Weltkrieg mündeten, ein Ende zu setzen. There have, however been several proposals for flags and coats of arms.  Decisions from the General Court can be appealed to the Court of Justice but only on a point of law. , The Galileo positioning system is another EU infrastructure project. The Council of Europe gave the flag a symbolic description in the following terms, though the official symbolic description adopted by the EU omits the reference to the "Western world":.  Any EU citizen or entity may appeal to the ombudsman to investigate an EU institution on the grounds of maladministration (administrative irregularities, unfairness, discrimination, abuse of power, failure to reply, refusal of information or unnecessary delay). The Parliament is the final body to approve or reject the proposed membership of the commission, and can attempt motions of censure on the commission by appeal to the Court of Justice. [u] The Lisbon Treaty and Protocol 14 to the ECHR have changed this: the former binds the EU to accede to the convention while the latter formally permits it. When the EU negotiates trade related agreement outside the WTO framework, the subsequent agreement must be approved by each individual EU member state government. Christians in the European Union are divided among members of Catholicism (both Roman and Eastern Rite), numerous Protestant denominations (Anglicans, Lutherans, and Reformed forming the bulk of this category), and the Eastern Orthodox Church. , The EU has some of the highest levels of life expectancy in the world, with Spain, Italy, Sweden, France, Malta, Ireland, Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Greece all among the world's top 20 countries with the highest life expectancy. EU policy is in general promulgated by EU directives, which are then implemented in the domestic legislation of its member states, and EU regulations, which are immediately enforceable in all member states.  Catalan, Galician and Basque are not recognised official languages of the European Union but have official status in one member state (Spain): therefore, official translations of the treaties are made into them and citizens have the right to correspond with the institutions in these languages. , The majority of media in the European Union are national-oriented, although some EU-wide media focusing on European affairs have emerged since the early 1990s, such as Euronews, Eurosport, EUobserver, EURACTIV or Politico Europe.  The EU has a target of zero GHG emission by 2050. In higher education, the policy was developed in the 1980s in programmes supporting exchanges and mobility. The main legal acts of the EU come in three forms: regulations, directives, and decisions. To prevent the joining states from getting into financial trouble or crisis after entering the monetary union, they were obliged in the Maastricht treaty to fulfil important financial obligations and procedures, especially to show budgetary discipline and a high degree of sustainable economic convergence, as well as to avoid excessive government deficits and limit the government debt to a sustainable level. The Council focused primarily on values—human rights and democracy—rather than on economic or trade issues, and was always envisaged as a forum where sovereign governments could choose to work together, with no supra-national authority. Trade and energy issues were also discussed.. Cities are largely spread out across the EU with a large grouping in and around the Benelux. [e] This political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii ("restoration of the empire"), either in the forms of the Reichsidee ("imperial idea") or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum ("christian empire"). Housing, youth, childhood, Functional diversity or elderly care are supportive competencies of the European Union and can be financed by the European Social Fund. European Union - Official website of the European Union. Two territories have left the Union: Greenland (an autonomous province of Denmark) withdrew in 1985; the United Kingdom formally invoked Article 50 of the Consolidated Treaty on European Union in 2017, and became the only sovereign state to leave when it withdrew from the EU in 2020. Projects under TEN include the Channel Tunnel, LGV Est, the Fréjus Rail Tunnel, the Öresund Bridge, the Brenner Base Tunnel and the Strait of Messina Bridge. These countries, primarily developing countries, include some who seek to one day become either a member state of the European Union, or more closely integrated with the European Union. , Economic and political union of European states, International organisations in which the union has membership, International cooperation and development partnerships, European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters, The 24 languages are equally official and accepted as working languages. Article 256(1) (ex article 225(1)) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, on.  The other world religions of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sikhism are also represented in the EU population. The legal basis for EU environmental policy was established with the introduction of the Single European Act in 1987. This process applies to nearly all areas, including the EU budget. , Eurostat's Eurobarometer opinion polls showed in 2005 that 52% of EU citizens believed in a god, 27% in "some sort of spirit or life force", and 18% had no form of belief.  ARTE is a public Franco-German TV network that promotes programming in the areas of culture and the arts. "Partnership and cooperation agreement (PCA) - EU monitor", "EUR-Lex - 22018A0126(01) - EN - EUR-Lex", "EU-Armenia Partnership and Cooperation Agreement", "EU and Kyrgyz Republic initial Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement", "EU-Korea FTA Will Be a Long Process: Greek Ambassador", "3.17E+14 USD to EUR | Convert US Dollars to Euros | XE", "Compositional Analysis of Foreign Currency Reserves in the 1999–2007 Period.  2.4 million immigrants from non-EU countries entered the EU in 2017. , EU member states retain all powers not explicitly handed to the European Union. They retain their national passports and other identification papers. August Horch gründete 1899 sein erstes Automobilunternehmen, August Horch & Cie. in Köln. Treaty of Rome) est amplius duorum foederum (quae etiam Foedera Romae icta dicuntur) die 25 Martii anno 1957 Romae ictorum, cui tunc nomen Foedus Communitatis economicae Europaeae instituendae datum est et quod hodie nomen Foedus de operatione Unionis Europaeae fert (cum alium Foedus Communitatis … , The EU operates a competition policy intended to ensure undistorted competition within the single market. Marni Floral Bucket Hat $495. Different legislative procedures are used within the same category of competence, and even with the same policy area. Countries accede to the union by becoming party to the founding treaties, thereby subjecting themselves to the privileges and obligations of EU membership.  The European Green Capital is an annual award given to cities that focuses on the environment, energy efficiency, and quality of life in urban areas to create smart city. This is reflected in the fact that the member states remain the 'masters of the Treaties', retaining control over the allocation of competences to the Union through constitutional change (thus retaining so-called Kompetenz-kompetenz); in that they retain control of the use of armed force; they retain control of taxation; and in that they retain a right of unilateral withdrawal from the Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. , Cultural co-operation between member states has been an interest of the EU since its inclusion as a community competency in the Maastricht Treaty. These included the Working Time Directive and the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive. Accordingly, the Union has legislated in areas such as extradition, family law, asylum law, and criminal justice. The charter is a codified catalogue of fundamental rights against which the EU's legal acts can be judged. This meeting received a considerable amount of media attention and raised speculation that a Union State might indeed be the focus of a new initiative by both governments.  Discussion over the draft texts of the European Constitution and later the Treaty of Lisbon included proposals to mention Christianity or a god, or both, in the preamble of the text, but the idea faced opposition and was dropped..  According to the Institute for European Environmental Policy, environmental law comprises over 500 Directives, Regulations and Decisions, making environmental policy a core area of European politics. Турция, Иран, Центральна Азия", "Communists of Moldova and the future of the country's ethno-political conflicts", "Transnistria or Moldavian Transnistrian Republic: Just facts", "President makes statement regarding debates over idea of so-called union of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus", "Russian-backed 'Novorossiya' breakaway movement collapses", "Why the Kremlin Is Shutting Down the Novorossiya Project", Serbian Parliament Speaker Calls For Closer Russia Ties, "Unified state of Russia and Belarus discussed in Kremlin", President meets with State Secretary of the Belarus–Russia Union State, "Union State budget 2009 to total RUR6–7 billion, Pavel Borodin says", "Russian PM Says Unification With Belarus Possible and Desirable", "Belarus rejects Putin's call for unification with Russia", Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Union_State&oldid=994906869, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Belarusian-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. On 1 August 2011, Putin stated he supported a union of Russia, Belarus, and possibly South Ossetia.  Since 2008, the organisers of this prize, in conjunction with the European Parliament, have awarded the Charlemagne Youth Prize in recognition of similar efforts led by young people. Ein vorheriger Name der Gemeinde ist Hato de Lemos. The new plan was expected to provide the European Union with greater flexibility to target and sanction those responsible for serious human rights violations and abuses around the world.. )", "Belarus could recognize Abkhazia, S.Ossetia next year", "Customs Union of Belarus, Russia, Kazakhstan to be up and running by 2010", "Trend - Новости Азербайджана.  The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ratified by most EU states provides general guidelines that states can follow to protect their linguistic heritage. In this section. All you need to know about trade marks Trade marks basics Apply for your mark here Route to registration Manage your mark Trade marks once registered.  The EU's external action financing is divided into 'geographic' instruments and 'thematic' instruments. , The EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC and they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly.  The intention was to achieve a federation like the Soviet Union, with a common head of state, legislature, flag, coat of arms, anthem, constitution, army, citizenship and currency. The currency union represents 342 million EU citizens. The most visible of these has been the Erasmus Programme, a university exchange programme which began in 1987. Maßgeblich beteiligt an dem nach ihm „Spinelli-Entwurf“ genannten Entwurf eines Vertrages zur Gründung der Europäischen Union. In 1960, the budget of the then European Economic Community was 0.03% of GDP.  Similarly, the Court of Justice of the European Union uses French as the working language, while the European Central Bank conducts its business primarily in English. :762 This influence on the internal affairs of other countries is generally referred to as "soft power", as opposed to military "hard power".